Effect of Leaders Related Attributes on the Efficacy of Tea Smallholding Development Societies in Sri Lanka


  • Kapuwelle Gamaralalage Janaka Prasanjith Mahindapala Postgraduate Institute of Agriculture
  • Jayatilaka Postgraduate Institute of Agriculture
  • Jayawardana Dept. of Agriculture Extension, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Peradeniya
  • Wijerathna




Keywords: Tea smallholders, Famer organisation, leadership, linking capital and multipurpose activity



The Tea Smallholding Development Societies (TSHDS) are farmers' organisations (FO) established under the legislative act in tea-growing rural areas of Sri Lanka.  They are largely non-for-profit voluntary organisations.  They were expected to work on the development, resource, welfare, economic and market-related matters of tea smallholders.  However, currently, the tea smallholding sub-sector seems stagnant as per some key indicators and that questions the interventions made by TSHDS to the lives of tea growers.  Other than the collective action, there can be number of factors affect the efficacy of a FO.  The present study attempted to find out the contribution of the leaders’ attributes to the efficacy of TSHDS.  From seven major tea smallholders’ districts of Sri Lanka, 120 sampling units were selected for the study by adopting a stratified random sampling technique.  Cross-sectional surveys were conducted to collect the data with the help of several questionnaire schedules.  Data were analysed employing various statistical tools like descriptive analysis, cluster analysis, factor analysis, chi-square, Man- Whitney test, log-linear analysis.  The majority of TSHDSs poorly provide multipurpose services to their members. Their market orientation is weak. Certain attributes of the leaders of TSHDS affect the efficacy of TSHDS. Although the attitudes of most TSHDS leaders were not negative, some other factors appeared to moderate the effect of attitude. The level of external linkages maintained by TSHDS greatly affects the efficacy of TSHDS and competent leaders guide TSHDS in establishing linkages with other organizations.






How to Cite

Mahindapala, K. G. J. P., Jayatilaka, M. W. A. P., Jayawardana , L. N. A. C., & Wijerathna, M. (2023). Effect of Leaders Related Attributes on the Efficacy of Tea Smallholding Development Societies in Sri Lanka. Journal of the Sri Lanka Association for the Advancement of Science, 5(2), 4–21. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.10440540